TBT: Désirée (1954)

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I got three-fourths of the way through Désirée (1954) before I realized it was based on actual historical events — and then only because events had gotten so ludicrous, I realized nobody would write a story this bizarre and had to start googling. What can I say, there’s some historical episodes I’m not familiar with!

Desiree stars Jean Simmons as the real life Désirée Clary, who was briefly engaged to Napoleon Bonaparte (Marlon Brando) before his marriage to Josephine (Merle Oberon). It starts with young Désirée meeting Napoleon, falling in love and becoming engaged, then him jilting her (sorry, no spoilers in history, even if you’re a dork like me who didn’t know this story).

<em>Robert Lefèvre, Portrait of Désirée Clary, 1807, Drottningholm Palace</em>

The story continues with her marriage to one of Napoleon’s generals, who randomly is elected to become the heir to the throne of Sweden (that’s what tipped me off, something that random couldn’t be made up!).

Fredric Westin, Desideria Clary, queen of Sweden, 1830, Nationalmuseum (Stockholm)

Fredric Westin, Desideria Clary, queen of Sweden, 1830, Nationalmuseum (Stockholm)

The movie is very Sweeping 1950s Historical Epic Blockbuster. Jean Simmons (Young Bess) stars as a historical manic pixie dream girl, sobers up, then returns to pixie-dom; Marlon Brando is great when he’s playing glowering, serious, political Napoleon, and cheesy when he has to play Napoleon the lover; and Merle Oberon is sophisticated and touching as Josephine. It’s unnecessarily long at 110 minutes, but you can multi-task through some of the angst as I did.

Marlon Brando in Désirée (1954)

Yes this!

1954 Desiree

No this!

The costumes were designed by French designer René Hubert (Forever AmberFire Over England, That Hamilton Woman), and American Charles Le Maire (The Girl in the Red Velvet Swing) — but I can’t figure out what the division of labor was there. Usually when there’s more than one designer, one has done the women’s costumes and the other the men’s. Hubert seems to have done almost all the press, and commented extensively on the women’s costumes, so I feel safe in saying he took the lead there.

Apparently the designers had some major challenges beyond the “simple” task of making a gazillion costumes for a big budget historical production. According to Hubert, the actual film used — CinemaScope — was a newer technology, and meant two things: 1. They had to make more costumes:

“When you have a frame of film as wide as that, you find yourself with more people in the backgrounds, so while CinemaScope was a true advancement in entertainment for audiences, it proved to be a real challenge for all of the departments who had to fill in the sides of the frames” (The Love story of Napoleon in Cinemascope: The Making of Desiree).

And 2. This newer film stock meant colors had to be handled differently than previously:

“Extensive use of Eastman color in the CinemaScope pix forces a readjustment on the dress designer … Having done some 50 films in Technicolor, ‘I’ve been forced to learn by color values all over again,’ he [Hubert] said. Blue, it appears, tends to be ‘jumpy’ in Eastman color and to kill other color values. Also, reds photograph very dark and now have to be brightened up, whereas before they had to be subdued” (“Pictures: Napoleonic Era Bosom Display Not Reproducible Under Yankee Code.” Variety [Archive: 1905-2000] 195, no. 4 [1954]: 16).

1954 Desiree

Balancing color…

1954 Desiree

…and making sure it displayed correctly on film was an issue.

Napoleon’s coronation costume (worn by Brando) was the most historically accurate ensemble in the film. It was:

“based on David’s famous painting of Napoleon’s actual coronation, the 40-year-old costume includes a crimson robe embroidered with golden bees, lined with white fur and ermine tails, and sporting a train worthy of a royal bride” (Movie Rags to Riches : At an auction of film costumes, a coat worn by Rudolph Valentino is expected to bring $15,000 or more).

The Boston Globe reported that Boston Museum of Fine Arts assistant curator in the Textiles and Costumes Department, Deborah Kraak, said:

“that despite the fact that Brando’s red velvet robe was appliqued with gold-thread bees rather than hand embroidered, or that the robe’s spotted white fur trim is rabbit rather than ermine, the garment designed by Rene Hubert and Charles LeMaire from paintings of the Directoire period is more historically accurate than most costumes in ’50s movies. According to Kraak, Michael Jackson once borrowed the Napoleon costume, complete with white leather gloves embroidered in gold with the Napoleonic crest, for a video in which he starred” (Hatfield, Julie. “CLASSIC COSTUMES PLAYING AT THE MFA: THIRD EDITION].” Boston Globe (Pre-1997 Fulltext), Jun 09, 1988).

Workshop of François Gérard, Portrait of Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), 1805-15, Rijksmuseum

Compare the real coronation robes of Napoleon… | Workshop of François Gérard, Portrait of Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), 1805-15, Rijksmuseum

1954 Desiree

With those made for the film

1954 Desiree 1954 Desiree

This was not Hubert’s first time designing the Napoleonic court — he had costumed Madame Sans-Gene, starring Gloria Swanson, in 1925. However, Hubert told Women’s Wear Daily that he was taking a different approach with Desiree:

“Comparing his current designs for Merle Oberon and Jean Simmons with those for Gloria Swanson [Madame Sans-Gene] … Mr. Hubert evaluates them as gowns in contrast to costumes. While research was the backbone of design for each picture, there is a subtle translation for ‘Desiree’ as opposed to the exaggerated effect of the clothes for Miss Swanson” (Sheppard, Sylvia. “Period Designs for New Film Reflect Contemporary Fashions: Returns to Film Design.” Women’s Wear Daily, Jun 21, 1954, 4).

1925 Madame Sans-Gêne

Gloria Swanson in Madame Sans-Gene (1925)

Nonetheless, there’s definitely a decent-sized gap between what was worn historically with the film costumes. Let’s look at Josephine’s coronation robes:

François Gérard, Joséphine in coronation costume, 1807-08, Musée national du Château de Fontainebleau

The real deal | François Gérard, Joséphine in coronation costume, 1807-08, Musée national du Château de Fontainebleau

Merle-Oberon-Desiree-1954

Merle Oberon’s costume in the film. I’m seeing a lot of exaggeration in those shoulder wings, and the fit of the bodice looks very different.

Merle Oberon “Empress Josephine” Coronation gown with velvet and ermine robe from Desirée

Also, that fit-and-flare skirt is SO not 1800s.

That change in bodice fit can be partially explained by the censorship of the period. According to Variety, Hubert:

“faced an almost impossible problem in reconciling the period wardrobe with the [Production] Code’s stern judges of decency … Eventually, there had to be a compromise and it was achieved by adding flowers or handkerchiefs to the top of the dresses” (“Pictures: Napoleonic Era Bosom Display Not Reproducible Under Yankee Code.” Variety (Archive: 1905-2000) 195, no. 4 (1954): 16.).

According to Women’s Wear Daily, Hubert wanted to emphasize an “Egyptian-like sheath silhouette,” which was fashionable “because of the desire to look as slim but voluptuous as possible.” But to avoid those pesky censors, “For modern motion pictures consumption, the low cut of the gowns is filled in with nude souffle where the neckline is hidden under jewels.” In a detail that’s fascinating to me, Hubert omitted the long or short corsets that would have been worn in the 1800s, instead designing “a net longline bra boned to the waistline to be built into the dresses” (Sheppard, Sylvia. “Period Designs for New Film Reflect Contemporary Fashions: Returns to Film Design.” Women’s Wear Daily, Jun 21, 1954, 4).

1954 Desiree

This was one of my favorite necklines/bodices in the film. Those boobs are being held up by a built-in longline bra!

1954 Desiree

A bit more of the same dress.

More tidbits gleaned from that same Women’s Wear Daily article:

“Richness of the courts in the 19th century is expressed in the use of such fabrics as silk velvet, lame, duchesse satin, heavy lace, pleated nylon” (PLEATED NYLON!!).

Desiree’s coronation gown on screen…

1954 Desiree

In real life.

1954 Desiree

GORGEOUS sparkly dress worn by Merle Oberon

1954 Desiree
1954 Desiree

Not very period, but this pleated gold number was very pretty

1954 Desiree

A bit of it in color.

“Jewelry is lavish, much of it having been made right on the set. Drop earrings and chokers are important as are cameos and tiaras. In some instances, Mr. Hubert has used a set of tiaras… a conventional one and a smaller matching one for the chignon of the Empire coiffure…”

1954 Desiree

Jean Simmons (1929-2010). British actress, wearing an orange dress with a gold tiara and necklace in a publicity portrait issued for the film, ‘Desiree’, 1954. The historical drama, directed by Henry Koster (1905-1988), starred Simmons as ‘Desiree Clary’. (Photo by Silver Screen Collection/Getty Images)

1954 Desiree

Mme. Tallien has pearls in her hair.

“Mr. Hubert has concentrated on the small bonnets and turbans of the time to keep the entire fashion in focus for the modern eye.”

1954 Desiree

Feathery bonnets.

“Furs are part of the opulence of the period … white fox, ermine and simulated chincilla are a few.”

1954 Desiree

Desiree’s redingote and bonnet are trimmed with fur.

1954 Desiree

That outfit survives!

“Color is an important medium with the designer for expressing the various periods and situations in the story … Loud colors mark the end of the revolution where the story begins.”

1954 Desiree
1954 Desiree

If you know anything about me, then you know I spent the first 30 minutes of the movie actively annoyed at Jean Simmons’ hair.

1954 Desiree

Also her sister’s ponytail.

“Sharp pastels and ombres are used for the beginning of the Directoire period at the time of Madam Tallien’s fashionable salon.”

1954 Desiree

The salon of Madame Tallien (right).

1954 Desiree

“Soft pastels are introduced for the time of the First Consulate.”

1954 Desiree

Not loving the lace!

1954 Desiree

But it looks good on.

“For the stricter Empire period where action is concentrated in the month of November, fabrics are heavy … crepes, satins, velvets … with accent on furs and hats with feathers.”

1954 Desiree

At a ball — Jean Simmons is in white, probably so she stands out | Left to right: Marlon Brando (1924 – 2004), Jean Simmons (1929 – 2010) and director Henry Koster (1905 – 1988) on the set of ‘Desiree’, USA, 1954. (Photo by Archive Photos/Getty Images)

1954 Desiree

But otherwise the colors are richer in this period.

More fur.

Jewel tones.

Sister’s hair has improved!

Ermine!

Josephine, however, is pretty much always in white.

Sparkly McSparklesons!

 

Have you seen Désirée?

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About the author

Kendra

Website

Kendra has been a fixture in the online costuming world since the late 1990s. Her website, Démodé Couture, is one of the most well-known online resources for historical costumers. In the summer of 2014, she published a book on 18th-century wig and hair styling. Kendra is a librarian at a university, specializing in history and fashion. She’s also an academic, with several articles on fashion history published in research journals.

16 Responses

  1. Damnitz

    How can somebody not see Désirée? I saw it, as it was a favourite of a friend (male), who had an interest in the period. It’s remarkable that even the blue uniforms are in some pictures in different shades of blue (what especially for officers and Generals just doesn’t make any sense).
    The Performance of the actors is much better then in Sacha Guitry’s epic “Napoléon” (1955). However there was a cast of many famous French stars too.

    Reply
  2. Gail

    I saw this movie ages and ages ago – amazed at the history.
    I guess it’s time for a rewatch while sewing or knitting lace.
    Great piece.

    Reply
  3. Susan Pola Staples

    What is with Merle Oberon’s changing skin tones? I saw the movie and preferred the book.

    Reply
    • Kendra

      Apparently at one point she spent too much time under a sun lamp and burned one side of her face, and so could only be filmed from the other side for many of her scenes! So maybe it’s related to that?

      Reply
  4. Terry Towels

    I’ve always loved Desiree. Artistic license was taken with the story, but compared to most, it’s fairly factual. My favorite factoids:

    Desiree hated the cold of Sweden (both court-wise and temperature-wise) and spent quite a bit of time in France.

    Josephine retired to Malmaison and became an acclaimed rosarian (a great collector). Most of her collection is still there today.

    Finally, many of the jewels in Sweden and Norway come from both the familial lines of Josephine, Napoleon, and Louis XIV. Lots of royal intermarriage in Europe going way, way back (not just Q Victoria’s family.

    Desiree’s letters are fascinating.

    Reply
    • Roxana

      As I recall Desiree’s son married a granddaughter of Josephine who brought in the jewelry. The Swedish Bernadottes have a very fine collection of royal jewels. IMO one of the most tasteful in Europe. And some very lovely Princesses to wear them.

      Reply
  5. Mitzy G

    Desiree Clary is why my oldest daughter’s middle name is Desiree!! I loved the book when I was a teenager and liked the movie pretty well, too. I love Jean Simmons.

    Reply
  6. Nancy

    I’ve never seen the movie, but I loved the book. My mom “made” me read it when I was in middle or high school. The ruby tiara Crown Princess Mary of Denmark wears is supposed to be made from the hair ornaments Desiree wore to Napoleon’s coronation. I think one of the Swedish button tiaras is made from buttons used on her husband’s uniform

    Reply
  7. Roxana

    The shoulder ruffs were a real thing but they were of lace and SUBTLE!!! Look at Josephine’s coronation portrait, you can just see them. They’re not in your face like the costume dresses.
    Desiree Clary’s life is pretty improbable, from silk merchant’s daughter to Queen of Sweden and matriarch of a dynasty is one heck of a career path.
    Picking Bernadette to succeed their childless and senescent king wasn’t all that random. An alliance with Napoleon’s France would have seemed wise at the time and as Desiree was Napoleon’s sister in law her husband was a peripheral member of the Imperial family as well as a Marshal of France. He made an excellent King of Sweden and of course his descendants still reign there.

    Reply
  8. Kathleen Schuller

    I saw Desiree at the impressionable age of 14 some 65 years ago. Loved the spectacle but didn’t care for Marlon Brando even then. The costumes are beautiful, whether authentic or not.

    Reply
    • Roxana

      You forgive a lot if it’s pretty. This is a very pretty movie. Personally I love Brando’s Napoleon but he’s not everybody’s dish.

      Reply
  9. Mr Elton

    The amazing story of Desirée and the Royal house of Bernadotte is very much part of Swedish history. On a side note re the movie: it’s fun what they thought Sweden looked like. The palaces are more or less intact in all their French 18th c glory, so they could just have opened a book…

    Reply

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